The 1990s war led to deteriorating living conditions for
a large proportion of Burundi's population. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of BDI and acronym for Burundi. The situation
worsened further after the severe floods in 2007, which
affected mainly small-scale agriculture. 39 percent of
toddlers were underweight. Maternal mortality in 2005 was
1,100 per 100,000 descendants.
The AIDS epidemic has hit Burundi very hard. In 2005,
approximately 150,000 people were estimated to be infected
with the HIV virus. The same year about 14,000 people died
due to AIDS. In 2004, there were 200 doctors in the country,
ie. about 1 per 40,000 residents. The corresponding figure
for nurses and midwives (a total of approximately 1,350) was
1 per 6,000 residents. The shortage of doctors is greatest
in the countryside. Burundi uses about 3.4 per cent of GDP
for health care (2005). Regarding sanitary conditions, 71
per cent of the population had access to clean water and 41
per cent to satisfactory sewage in 2006.
In late March 2008, the FLN sought to get parliament to
pass a law granting front-line members immunity from arrest.
Immunity should cover common crimes, but not serious crimes
under international law such as war crimes or crimes against
humanity. Although the government has previously granted
this immunity to individual persons, the FLN did not have
access to it.
In April 2008, FLN bombed Bujumbura. The Burundian army
responded to the attack and the FLN suffered heavy losses. A
new ceasefire was concluded in May. In August, President
Nkurunziza met with FLN leader Agathon Rwasa. It was the
first direct meeting since June 2007. The two agreed to meet
twice weekly to set up a commission to solve the problems
that arise during the peace talks.
The refugee camps are now closed and 450,000 refugees
have been repatriated. The economy is in ruins and with the
return of refugees, new conflicts arise over land in
President Nkurunziza was re-elected in June 2010 with
91.6% of the vote after the opposition jointly called for a
boycott. The weeks leading up to the vote were marked by
several grenade attacks - which the FLN was accused of being
behind -, 8 killed and over 60 wounded.
The political chaos escalated after the election. Members
of the FNL resumed the armed struggle and attacked the
CNDD-FDD. The military counter-attacked prominent members of
the FLN and other opposition parties. The violence continued
through 2011 and culminated tentatively in September 2011
when 40 opposition politicians were murdered at a bar in
Gatumba. The country was characterized by widespread
impunity and the murderers were rarely tried. Nkurunziza
sent mixed signals to the opposition. In his speech on
Independence Day, July 1, he urged opposition leaders to
return home to take part in the country's reconstruction,
but despite international appeals, he and the opposition
were unable to conclude negotiations on the basis of
There were 30 political murders in 2012. A decrease from
101 the year before. An investigative commission set up by
the state attorney in August 2012 issued a report denying
that there were political murders. However, none of the
murders were investigated or sentenced.
In October-December 2012, some 30,000 Burundian refugees
returned to Burundi from refugee camps in Tanzania, where
many of them had lived for decades. The refugees had been
given an ultimatum by the Tanzanian government in Tanzania.
The return was fairly peaceful, although in some areas
conflicts of ownership of the land arose.