EU Eastward Enlargement
Many new countries were admitted to the EU during the past years. From
you can read why this is the case
and which it is here.
Youngsters for Europe - the EU enlargement to the east
On May 1, 2004, 10 other countries were admitted to the European Union. The
10 countries are Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Malta and Cyprus. Since January 1, 2007, two other countries
have joined the EU: Romania and Bulgaria.
You probably don't know the name of some of these countries yet. This is
because many countries have not been independent for a long time and until a few
years ago were still grouped together in socialist communities such as the
Soviet Union or Czechoslovakia. Some of these countries are also quite small
with very few inhabitants (such as Malta).
Why is the eastward expansion called eastward expansion?
Very simple... Except for Malta, all new countries are in the east of
Europe. On the map you can see where these countries are.
New money for everyone
An important goal of the EU is to support poorer countries that are members
of the EU with money. The money has to be used, for example, to build roads,
apartments or businesses in poor areas. Many countries that are new to the EU
will get a lot of money from this regulation. In the years 2004 to 2006 alone,
the 10 countries will receive a total of 40 billion euros. For the money, you
could buy 5000 Playstations every day for 100 years.
There is always controversy in the EU about how much money is
distributed. The countries of Luxembourg, Germany and Austria pay more money to
the EU than they get back from it. That is why many people in these countries
are not very happy if more countries come to the EU that need support.
Europe - Europe idea
In ancient and medieval Europe, first and foremost, it was used as a
geographical and mythological term. As a political slogan and as a call to form
common fronts, the word Europe first appeared in the mid-1400s, when the fall of
Constantinople in 1453 prompted Pope Pius II to urge Christians to rally as
Europeans against the outsider Ottoman threat.
The great voyages of discovery in the 1400-1500-t. helped spread the notion
that Europeans should have something in common with the rest of the world.
Further political power then got the European idea first and foremost in the
propaganda against internal enemies. Not least, the fear of French supremacy and
overpowering lords like the sun king Louis 14 was through the 1600s.
contributing to Europe becoming tantamount to freedom and self-determination.
Through 1700-t. the concept of Europe increasingly became the framework for
historical and social science presentations, and at least the political elite in
Europe felt more and more like Europeans. Comparative studies of European
conditions such as Holberg's Introduction to the Greatest European Realm's
Stories continued until these latter times (1711) and a large number of
depictions of Europe of supposedly non-European origin, for example Montesquie's
Persian letters(1721), formed the basis for the European concept of the
Enlightenment. Europe emerged in the 1700s literature with the greatest degree
of course as the most civilized and enlightened part of the world. At the same
time, the (self-) criticism of European conditions, of monotony and absolutism
as well as cruelty and greed towards the more or less noble "others" were
stronger than ever before or since.
The self-critical and self-critical Europe concepts of the 1700s were
replaced by a more confident and less self-critical view over the following
centuries. After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, the cosmopolitan
European consciousness of the Enlightenment gradually faded with the politically
active elite and came under the shadow of various forms of national and
With the German author Novalis ' essay The Christianity or Europe of
1799, the European idea came to play a significant role as an alternative to
national and nationalist projects. It emerged as a vision of overcoming and
mutually recognizing national contradictions, as a reminder of a common cultural
heritage despite the increasingly nationally organized diversity and as a cry
for struggle that only by uniting forces could Europeans withstand the challenge
of the new worlds in west and east, ie from what came after the Second World War
to be called the superpowers.
The European crises, wars and revolutions through the 1800s and 1900s. has
been accompanied by the constant invocation of common European heritage, culture
and identity against old as new "barbaric" forces and challenges. However, the
myriad essays, dissertations and journals on Europe from the last two hundred
years have never reached any clarity or agreement on a chronological and
geographical demarcation or definition. Historically, Europe's beginnings
include been associated with the Persian wars in 400 AD, Emperor Constantine's
synthesis of ancient and Christian values in 300 AD, the battle against
Attila's females in 400 AD, the coronation of Charles the Great in the year 800,
the Crusades, the French Revolution or with the Napoleonic era. Geographically,
it has never been possible to agree on whether Russia and England should be
counted on the continent. In turn, values such as freedom and diversity,
self-determination and individualism, enlightenment and universalism are once
again the basic theme of most of the contributors to the European debate.
The European idea experienced its last boom when the European Union was a
political and economic priority in Western Europe in the 1980s, while the
European idea and the idea of a unified Central Europe were at least as high
with the opposition in the eastern half of the continent. The fall of the Berlin
Wall and the bipolar world order of 1989 has once again radically changed our
way of talking about and being European.