Kazakhstan is relatively well advanced in the social
field. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of KAZ and acronym for Kazakhstan. Especially for employees at larger companies, the
conditions are comparatively good. Old-age pensions are paid
at the age of 60 for men and at 55 for women. In 1996, a new
pension system was introduced that gradually raises the
retirement age to 63 years for men and 58 years for women.
The sickness benefit has so far fully covered the loss of
income. Unemployment and underemployment have long existed,
but these problems have previously been hidden by the fact
that it was in the interest of the state-owned industrial
companies to have as large numbers of employees as possible
in order to fulfill the plans. The necessity of economic
reform means that subsidies on goods and services, such as
housing, certain food and public transport, are now reduced
or disappeared altogether. Kazakhstan is characterized by
relatively good relations between the country's many ethnic
groups, but clashes have occurred. Some emigration of
Russians and other non-Kazakh residents has taken place.
There are 36 doctors per 10,000 residents (2012).
In May, Kazakhstan and China signed an agreement on the
construction of gas pipelines from the Caspian Sea to the
country's western border.
In August, opposition leader Galymzhan Zhakiyanov was
released after serving two of the seven years in prison he
had been sentenced. He was sent by the government into
internal exile just one month before the parliamentary
In September-October, parliamentary elections, won by
Nazarbayev and his party, won over half the seats in
parliament. International observers characterized the
election as questionable.
At the opening of a conference on foreign investment,
conducted in Almaty in June 2005, Nazarbayev drew attention
to the destabilizing effects of the rapid "import" of
Western democracyhad in Central Asia. The President's speech
followed a series of popular uprisings, which according to.
the leaders of the Central Asian republics were planned by
the United States. Just a month before, the president had
severely cracked down on demonstrations in the capital, and
he now made the point that although the country gladly
welcomed foreign investment in the oil industry, foreign
companies had to adapt to the situation in Kazakhstan and be
aware that democracy is a culture that is only slowly
assimilated in the various countries. Acc. Nazarbayev was
the road to prosperity a union among the republics around
the Caspian Sea. Despite persistent rumors of widespread
government-level corruption linked to foreign investment,
the economic situation of the population as a whole was
improving - according to.
The December 2005 presidential election was again won by
Nazarbayev with 90% of the vote, giving him another seven
years on the presidential post. Acc. election observers,
however, the electoral process was far from Western
standards. was linked to the intimidation of the opposition
and the media's right-wing bias - in favor of the
Kazakhstan works closely with Israel. Kazakhstan's
interests are purely business-related, while Israel is
linking with Muslim countries that will not criticize the
country for its continued occupation of Palestine.
Prime Minister Akhmetov resigned without further
explanation in January 2007. He was replaced in the post by
Deputy Minister Karim Masimov. In May, Parliament allowed
Nazarbayev to extend his term as president indefinitely,
granted him immunity from prosecution, and gave him full
influence on the country's domestic and foreign policy.
The OTAN government coalition was the parliamentary
election in August with 88% of the vote. None of the
opposition parties reached the 7% threshold. It prompted
local media to criticize opposition leaders for lack of
charisma. The opposition itself characterized the election
as characterized by a wide range of irregularities.
Despite the irregularities in the political system,
Kazakhstan was nevertheless designated in December to serve
as OSCE chairman country in 2010.