Social and health care is mainly provided under private
auspices. In 1990, Lebanon had a physician of over 400
residents. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of LBN and acronym for Lebanon. The most common causes of death are
cardiovascular disease, typhoid fever and dysentery, but the
protracted wars have of course also resulted in a large
number of deaths. There are some public pension and benefit
schemes, but they do not cover the entire population.
Lebanon has received medical assistance from abroad,
including from UNRWA. The women in Lebanon are considered to
be more equal to the men than in many other countries in the
The country is still suffering from the suites after the
civil war. The division between people groups, the various
militias' previous involvement in smuggling and drug
traffic, etc., as well as many young people's previous
direct participation in the fighting, has contributed to low
school attendance and that many younger men have been
included in organized crime.
On February 16, 1992 - eight days after peace talks
between Arabs and Israelis resumed - Hezbollah's leader,
Sheikh Abbas Mussawi, was killed in an Israeli air strike.
Six days later, the Shiite guerrillas ceased their attacks
on Israel after an agreement was reached between Hezbollah,
Amal and Syrian and Lebanese forces. The Israeli Defense
Minister stated that any attack by this organization would
be answered. At the request of the Lebanese ambassador, the
UN Security Council condemned the violence in the region. In
March, a large-scale Israeli mobilization at the border
triggered fighting with the pro-Iranian militia. In April,
Israel bombed a number of Shiite villages in the Bekaa
A general strike against official economic policy and
violent demonstrations brought the pro-Syrian government led
by Omar Karame to a standstill. President Elías Hrawi now
appointed moderate Sunni Muslim, Rashid Al Sohl as new head
of government. He put together a government that consisted
of just as many Christians and Muslims. However, the August
parliamentary elections were boycotted by the Christians.
The new parliament included representatives of Hezbollah and
Amal. In October, Saudi millionaire Rafiq al-Hariri was
appointed new prime minister.
In 93, the World Bank granted a loan to the country to be
used for reconstruction and education. The currency
recovered 10% of its value, and foreign investment gradually
began to return, but the gap between rich and poor grew.
Israel again bombed Palestinian refugee camps and PFLP
bases. In August, the Lebanese government rejected an
Israeli proposal for total withdrawal, for Israel's demands
were at the same time total disarmament of Hezbollah.
Although political violence continued in 1994, decisive
progress was made towards peace. The economy grew by 6% and
banks from the Netherlands, England and France returned
after 20 years of absence. This year's most serious
terrorist attacks were the bombing of one of Hezbollah's top
leaders, the killing of 21 Israeli soldiers and a series of
bomb attacks against Christian churches that cost dozens of
lives. In March, the government shut down private radio and
TV stations until a new press law could be drafted and at
the same time imposed the death penalty for political
murders or criminal acts.
Throughout 1995, the government's attention was focused
on resolving the armed conflict and rebuilding Beirut. In
January, the UN Security Council decided to extend its
intervention in the country. In parallel with the peace
talks between Israel and Palestine in Oslo, Hezbollah and
the SLA (South Lebanese Army) resumed their mutual attacks
in the south, respectively. to expel the Israeli occupation
forces and delay negotiations with Syria.
The fate of the Palestinians in Lebanon remained
uncertain. The UN calculated that the country's government
failed to fulfill the civil rights of 338,000 refugees.
On June 24, former Maronite leader Samir Geagea was
sentenced to life in prison for the murder of his Christian
rival, Dany Chamoun and his family. The verdict helped tip
the political balance of power in favor of Muslims.