Since Mongolia's transition to market economy in the
early 1990s, social disparities have increased
significantly, especially between cities and rural areas. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of MNG and acronym for Mongolia. It
has been strengthened over the years with disastrous winters
when an average of 1/3 of the grazing animals have died,
which has affected shepherd families in different parts of
the country. During difficult years, many tent dwellers seek
out families in the outer areas of the cities, and then
usually return to the countryside. It has been estimated
that 2/5 of the shepherd families have been worse off after
the winter of 2010. Conversely, the number of livestock
keepers in the country is increasing during periods when
factories are closed down in the cities, as during the
crisis in the textile industry 2004-05. In 2004, 36 percent
of Mongolia residents lived below the poverty line; the
proportion can thus vary widely from year to year.
Similarly, it is impossible to state the level of
unemployment in the country. Temporary work in an informal
sector can cope with family survival during crisis years,
but in many families you cannot pay insurance premiums and
costs in connection with health care and schooling.
International analysts therefore believe that the situation
is worsening in the long term.
Social insurance is based on employment and is voluntary
for self-employed and shepherds. The retirement age is 60
years for months and 55 years for women, but an increase is
being discussed, as the proportion of older people is
increasing and their health has improved. In 2008, there
were close to 28 doctors and 76 beds per 10,000 residents.
This is insignificant more than ten years earlier, but the
quality of healthcare has improved significantly. Welfare
calculations (HDI) placed Mongolia in 2015 at 92 among 188
countries in the world.