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Norway

Social conditions

Society of NorwaySocial conditions in Norway are characterized by good material living conditions, small social differences and an active state, which guarantees citizens protection when social or health problems arise. After the end of World War II in 1945, the then unifying government formulated the Fellesprogrammet, according to which social problems should be prevented through a socially oriented nutrition and education policy. The inspiration from the Swedish folk home idea was clear. Social housing construction, work and education throughout the country as well as public pension for all were central elements of this policy. The real social policy could limit itself to helping those who nevertheless had problems, especially the sick and the old. However, this has not completely succeeded. Social policy has become more extensive than was then expected.

Society of Norway

Health care led to a shortage of doctors and nurses until the late 1960s, but has since developed well. The hospitals are now run by the county municipalities (county councils) with the exception of a few state specialty hospitals. In 2000, Rikshospitalet opened in Olso, one of the world's most modern. The hospitals have undergone thorough rationalization and efficiency, while the authorities have sought to promote primary care and slow down the hospital expansion. Primary care and elder care, which is municipally administered, has since the 1980s been significantly increased financial resources, and by a general state grants to local governments, and by contributions from the social security (national insurance, see below).

In 1965, Norway was given a law on social care that replaced the old so-called poverty fund system. That law was replaced in 1992 by a law on social services. In each municipality there should be a social committee (health and social board) with a social administration (social office). Initially, social care was aimed at eradicating the "residual poverty" as it was called in the preliminary work to the 1965 Care Act, but it has expanded greatly during 1975-97, partly because the number of unemployed has increased and partly because other income-boosting devices have become inadequate. Since 1997, social care expenditures have stagnated due to fewer unemployed and more restrictive practices. The Social Services Act of 1992 also contains rules for the compulsory care of addicts. However, alcoholism and drug abuse are less prevalent in Norway than in the other Nordic countries. In 1999, a supplement was added to the Social Services Act on compulsory measures against the mentally ill with harmful or dangerous behavior.

Public childcare was run by laymen boards until the 1950s, and many children were taken care of in private orphanages characterized by religious morals and authoritarian methods of upbringing. Gradually, care was reformed, and in 1992 a new law on child care came. Nowadays, all client work is performed by trained personnel. Family homes are the most common type of placement for children who cannot live with their parents. There are relatively fewer children being cared for in Norway than in Sweden. General childcare has expanded considerably in recent years and legal certainty has increased.

In 1967, Norway was passed a law on general insurance, national insurance, which reformed the pension system, including by supplementing the national pension with an ATP system according to the Swedish model. In 1971, sickness and unemployment insurance were also placed under national insurance. Each municipality must have a social security office, which corresponds to the Swedish Insurance Fund. The pension rules are similar to the Swedish ones, but the statutory retirement age is higher. It was previously 70 years but was lowered in 1973 to 67 years, with some income testing to 70 years. Through employment contracts, both lower retirement age and supplementary occupational pensions occur. As a result, and through early retirement, the average retirement age in 1994 is down to 61 years. The health insurance provides free hospital care and contributions to medical and dental care and sickness benefits for one year. Unemployment insurance is compulsory, but a certain number of contributions are required; also other conditions mean that many unemployed are without insurance. As in Sweden, many unemployed people are employed with different types of job training and education. In all social security branches, the benefits are calculated in relation to previous income, usually with about 80% of this. In recent years, the National Insurance Scheme has had major financial problems due to the increase in the number of unemployed and the elderly, but thanks to the oil revenues, the state has been able to strengthen it by billions.

Child support is given to all families with children under 16 (from 2000 the limit is increased to 18 years), higher to children under 3 years, children to single providers and to multi-child families. As in Sweden, parental benefit and the right to leave can be distributed over several years. In 1998, a politically debated cash subsidy was introduced to families with young children. The purpose of the support is to increase the choice of toddler parents between day care or home care. The support has led to a decline in day care facilities. Problems with recruitment to the care professions are feared because young mothers choose cash support over work.

The health status of the population is good when compared to other European countries. The frequency of different diseases is quite similar to the Swedish one. Norway used to have a significantly lower suicide rate, but this increased until the mid-1990s to stagnate and then decrease somewhat. The average life expectancy is among the highest in the world, though slightly lower than the Swedish one.

If you define poverty as not being able to eat a decent meal every day or buy a daily newspaper, then about 5% of the population is said to be poor for any period of life but significantly fewer for a longer period of time. Poverty is most prevalent among single mothers and older women. Registered alcohol consumption is among the lowest in the world, but home consumption is considered to be quite extensive. The biggest social problems in Norway today are considered to be unemployment, loneliness and lack of social contacts. Over 1/3 of households consist of just one person. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of NOR and acronym for Norway.

Mining in Norway

Mining has played an important role in Norwegian business since the beginning of the 17th century, and is among the oldest export industries in the country.

Traditionally, the metallic ores have weighed most heavily in the Norwegian rock industry. This has changed completely during the 1980s and 1990s. Today, industrial minerals, natural stones, crushed stone, sand and gravel are far more important economically. In 2016, the gross production value of the Norwegian mining industry was estimated at approximately NOK 10.2 billion. Of this, export value amounted to NOK 4.4 billion.

Building materials are the dominant part of the industry. Mineral resources are part of a number of industrial value chains, and Norwegian industry also imports significant amounts of mineral resources from other countries.

Industrial Minerals

Industrial minerals are minerals and rocks of economic value that are produced because of their physical, chemical, non-metallic properties. Industrial minerals are utilized in many different products, including as fillers in paints, paper and plastics, and as major constituents in ceramics, glass and cement.

Mining based on industrial minerals is an important part of the Norwegian mining industry. Norway has considerable resources and good opportunities for new products. The most important export products are, by decreasing value: limestone filler, olivine, nepheline syenite, quartz, feldspar, dolomite, talc and graphite.

Key manufacturers

Hustadmarmor AS in Elnesvågen near Molde is a large manufacturer of limestone filler for the paper industry. The company is part of the international Omya AG based in Switzerland.

Olivine mainly goes to the metallurgical industry. Most of the production comes from North Cape Minerals AS with deposits at Åheim and Raubergvika in Møre and Romsdal and Bryggja in Nordland. North Cape Minerals also produces quartz and feldspar in Glamsland at Lillesand and nepheline syenite at Stjernøy in Finnmark. All three products are used as raw materials in the glass and ceramic industry. The occurrence at Stjernøy is one of the three largest in the world. The largest is Blue Mountain in Canada, owned by Unimin. Unimin again has major ownership interests in North Cape Minerals.

Quality dolomite is used, among other things, for fillers, and together with seawater for the production of magnesium. Franzefoss Bruk has breached Ballangen and Norwegian Holding at Fauske and in Webs.

The domestic-oriented part of the mineral industry produces large volumes of limestone for cement, and quartzite for the ferrosilicon industry. Norcem AS annually removes limestone at Brevik in Telemark and Kjøpsvik in Nordland. Elkem ASA manufactures from its quartzite quarries in Tana.

Natural stone

Natural stone is the term for any stone that can be cut, split or cut into slabs or blanks for use in outdoor areas, buildings and monuments. We distinguish between slate and block. The majority of the natural value of natural stone is derived from larvikite raw block, the remainder is distributed on marble and slate.

Slate is rocks that split along natural, flat layers. Common types of slate are clay slate, fillite slate, mica slate and quartzite slate.

Blockstones are broken into large blocks, which are then cut or cut into slabs and blanks. Common types are larvikite, anorthosite, marble, granite, limestone and sandstone.

Masonry stones are made of slate, gneiss and granite which can be divided according to the split.

Key products

Larvikitt is Norway's most important natural stone. It is widespread in Vestfold, especially along the coast between Tønsberg and Langesundsfjorden. The stone is excavated in large rectangular blocks and exported unprocessed throughout the world, but substantially to southern Europe and the east. Larvikitt was named Norway's national rock in 2008.

Marble is mined in Fauske in Nordland and exported substantially as a raw block.

Quartzite slate is taken out in major fractures in Alta and Oppdal, and full-lime slate at Otta. A significant part of the slate is processed and converted in standard format.

Hump, sand and gravel

The raw materials sand, gravel and crushed stone are the common term for mineral raw materials used for construction purposes. The raw materials are extracted from mountains by blasting (rock, crushed stone) or from natural loads and gravel deposits). The industry also has significant ripple effects in processing and transport. The bulk goes to the domestic market. About 20 per cent of the production volume is exported.

Metallic ores

Metallic ore is a term for rocks that contain metals with a specific gravity of over 5 grams / cm 3.

The operation of copper, zinc and leaded sulfide ores is soon history. The mines at Løkken, Røros, Sulitjelma and Mofjellet have long been closed, while Grong mines in Nord-Trøndelag and Bleikvassli mine in Nordland were closed in 1998. Nickel and Olivin AS in Ballangen, Nordland, which produced nickel / copper and cobalt concentrate, was discontinued in 2003.

Rana Gruber AS, which operates the iron ore deposit in Dunderlandsdalen, Nordland, went from mining to underground mining in 1998.

A / S Sydvaranger in Finnmark, Norway's largest iron ore mining company of all time, was closed down in the autumn of 1997 after 87 years of operation. The operation was resumed in 2010 with new owners, but was closed down again. In 2016, Sydvaranger Gruve AS had limited production of iron ore from previously extruded pulp.

New Fosdalen Bergverk AS, Nord-Trøndelag, tufted on iron ore, ceased operations in the fall of 1997.

Titania AS, Hauge in Dalane, produces 0.5 million tonnes of ilmenite concentrate annually. About 25 per cent goes to the ilmite plant in Tyssedal, 20 per cent to Kronos Titan AS, Fredrikstad, and the rest to export. Kronos produces 30,000 tonnes of titanium pigment annually. Titania and Kronos are owned by US Kronos International Ltd.

Energy Minerals (Coal)

Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani AS (SNSK) in Svalbard is owned by the state. SNSK produced about 300,000 tonnes of coal in 1998. From 1997 there has been regular operations in the Svea mine in Van Mijenfjorden and in mine 7 in Longyearbyen. Production increased significantly in the first years after Svea started. In 2016, 0.96 million tonnes of coal were sold.

The operation of the coal mines on Svalbard has long been in deficit. In 2017, it was decided to discontinue coal operations in Svea and Lucknefjell, while the operation of Mine 7 continues.

Management, legislation

In 1539 a rock arrangement was introduced which followed Saxon mountain rights and was written in German. In 1683 came a mountain ordinance to replace it. In 1812 the real rock system was introduced, while the first real rock law dates from 1842.

The Directorate for Mineral Management with the Mining Master of Svalbard (formerly the Bergvesenet) is the State's administrative body for mining activities, with headquarters in Trondheim and a branch office in Longyearbyen. Of particular importance to the management is the Mineral Act of 2009.

History

Mining was carried out since the 13th century until the 17th century, essentially on complex sulfide ores containing silver, copper, lead and zinc. The Norwegian iron industry dates from the 16th century (Fossum works at Skien was the first in 1542). At one time there were 18 small ironworks in operation, these smelted iron from a number of small, rich deposits in southern and eastern Norway. Some of the most important ironworks were Næs Jernverk, Fossum works, Ulefos Jernworks, Fritzøe ironworks, Bærums Verk, Eidsvoll Jernverk and Frolands Verk. They were based on charcoal smelting, and gradually disappeared from the 1850s.

 

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