Social conditions in Norway are characterized by good
material living conditions, small social differences and an
active state, which guarantees citizens protection when
social or health problems arise. After the end of World War
II in 1945, the then unifying government
formulated the Fellesprogrammet, according to which
social problems should be prevented through a socially
oriented nutrition and education policy. The inspiration
from the Swedish folk home idea was clear. Social housing
construction, work and education throughout the country as
well as public pension for all were central elements of this
policy. The real social policy could limit itself to helping
those who nevertheless had problems, especially the sick and
the old. However, this has not completely succeeded. Social
policy has become more extensive than was then expected.
Health care led to a shortage of doctors and nurses until
the late 1960s, but has since developed well. The hospitals
are now run by the county municipalities (county councils)
with the exception of a few state specialty hospitals. In
2000, Rikshospitalet opened in Olso, one of the world's most
modern. The hospitals have undergone thorough
rationalization and efficiency, while the authorities have
sought to promote primary care and slow down the hospital
expansion. Primary care and elder care, which is municipally
administered, has since the 1980s been significantly
increased financial resources, and by a general state grants
to local governments, and by contributions from the social
security (national insurance, see below).
In 1965, Norway was given a law on social care that
replaced the old so-called poverty fund system. That law was
replaced in 1992 by a law on social services. In each
municipality there should be a social committee (health
and social board) with a social administration (social
office). Initially, social care was aimed at
eradicating the "residual poverty" as it was called in the
preliminary work to the 1965 Care Act, but it has expanded
greatly during 1975-97, partly because the number of
unemployed has increased and partly because other
income-boosting devices have become inadequate. Since 1997,
social care expenditures have stagnated due to fewer
unemployed and more restrictive practices. The Social
Services Act of 1992 also contains rules for the compulsory
care of addicts. However, alcoholism and drug abuse are less
prevalent in Norway than in the other Nordic countries. In
1999, a supplement was added to the Social Services Act on
compulsory measures against the mentally ill with harmful or
Public childcare was run by laymen boards until the
1950s, and many children were taken care of in private
orphanages characterized by religious morals and
authoritarian methods of upbringing. Gradually, care was
reformed, and in 1992 a new law on child care came.
Nowadays, all client work is performed by trained personnel.
Family homes are the most common type of placement for
children who cannot live with their parents. There are
relatively fewer children being cared for in Norway than in
Sweden. General childcare has expanded considerably in
recent years and legal certainty has increased.
In 1967, Norway was passed a law on general insurance,
national insurance, which reformed the pension
system, including by supplementing the national pension with
an ATP system according to the Swedish model. In 1971,
sickness and unemployment insurance were also placed under
national insurance. Each municipality must have a social
security office, which corresponds to the Swedish
Insurance Fund. The pension rules are similar to the Swedish
ones, but the statutory retirement age is higher. It was
previously 70 years but was lowered in 1973 to 67 years,
with some income testing to 70 years. Through employment
contracts, both lower retirement age and supplementary
occupational pensions occur. As a result, and through early
retirement, the average retirement age in 1994 is down to 61
years. The health insurance provides free hospital care and
contributions to medical and dental care and sickness
benefits for one year. Unemployment insurance is compulsory,
but a certain number of contributions are required; also
other conditions mean that many unemployed are without
insurance. As in Sweden, many unemployed people are employed
with different types of job training and education. In all
social security branches, the benefits are calculated in
relation to previous income, usually with about 80% of this.
In recent years, the National Insurance Scheme has had major
financial problems due to the increase in the number of
unemployed and the elderly, but thanks to the oil revenues,
the state has been able to strengthen it by billions.
Child support is given to all families with children
under 16 (from 2000 the limit is increased to 18 years),
higher to children under 3 years, children to single
providers and to multi-child families. As in Sweden,
parental benefit and the right to leave can be distributed
over several years. In 1998, a politically debated cash
subsidy was introduced to families with young children. The
purpose of the support is to increase the choice of toddler
parents between day care or home care. The support has led
to a decline in day care facilities. Problems with
recruitment to the care professions are feared because young
mothers choose cash support over work.
The health status of the population is good when compared
to other European countries. The frequency of different
diseases is quite similar to the Swedish one. Norway used to
have a significantly lower suicide rate, but this increased
until the mid-1990s to stagnate and then decrease somewhat.
The average life expectancy is among the highest in the
world, though slightly lower than the Swedish one.
If you define poverty as not being able to eat a decent
meal every day or buy a daily newspaper, then about 5% of
the population is said to be poor for any period of life but
significantly fewer for a longer period of time. Poverty is
most prevalent among single mothers and older women.
Registered alcohol consumption is among the lowest in the
world, but home consumption is considered to be quite
extensive. The biggest social problems in Norway today are
considered to be unemployment, loneliness and lack of social
contacts. Over 1/3 of households consist of just one person. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of NOR and acronym for Norway.
Mining in Norway
Mining has played an important role in Norwegian business
since the beginning of the 17th century, and is among the
oldest export industries in the country.
Traditionally, the metallic ores have weighed most
heavily in the Norwegian rock industry. This has changed
completely during the 1980s and 1990s. Today, industrial
minerals, natural stones, crushed stone, sand and gravel are
far more important economically. In 2016, the gross
production value of the Norwegian mining industry was
estimated at approximately NOK 10.2 billion. Of this, export
value amounted to NOK 4.4 billion.
Building materials are the dominant part of the industry.
Mineral resources are part of a number of industrial value
chains, and Norwegian industry also imports significant
amounts of mineral resources from other countries.
Industrial minerals are minerals and rocks of economic
value that are produced because of their physical, chemical,
non-metallic properties. Industrial minerals are utilized in
many different products, including as fillers in paints,
paper and plastics, and as major constituents in ceramics,
glass and cement.
Mining based on industrial minerals is an important part
of the Norwegian mining industry. Norway has considerable
resources and good opportunities for new products. The most
important export products are, by decreasing value:
limestone filler, olivine, nepheline syenite, quartz,
feldspar, dolomite, talc and graphite.
Hustadmarmor AS in Elnesvågen near Molde is a large
manufacturer of limestone filler for the paper industry. The
company is part of the international Omya AG based in
Olivine mainly goes to the metallurgical
industry. Most of the production comes from North Cape
Minerals AS with deposits at Åheim and Raubergvika in Møre
and Romsdal and Bryggja in Nordland. North Cape Minerals
also produces quartz and feldspar in Glamsland at Lillesand
and nepheline syenite at Stjernøy in Finnmark. All three
products are used as raw materials in the glass and ceramic
industry. The occurrence at Stjernøy is one of the three
largest in the world. The largest is Blue Mountain in
Canada, owned by Unimin. Unimin again has major ownership
interests in North Cape Minerals.
Quality dolomite is used, among other things,
for fillers, and together with seawater for the production
of magnesium. Franzefoss Bruk has breached Ballangen and
Norwegian Holding at Fauske and in Webs.
The domestic-oriented part of the mineral industry
produces large volumes of limestone for cement, and
quartzite for the ferrosilicon industry. Norcem AS annually
removes limestone at Brevik in Telemark and Kjøpsvik in
Nordland. Elkem ASA manufactures from its quartzite quarries
Natural stone is the term for any stone that can be cut,
split or cut into slabs or blanks for use in outdoor areas,
buildings and monuments. We distinguish between slate and
block. The majority of the natural value of natural stone is
derived from larvikite raw block, the remainder is
distributed on marble and slate.
Slate is rocks that split along natural, flat
layers. Common types of slate are clay slate, fillite slate,
mica slate and quartzite slate.
Blockstones are broken into large blocks, which
are then cut or cut into slabs and blanks. Common types are
larvikite, anorthosite, marble, granite, limestone and
Masonry stones are made of slate, gneiss and
granite which can be divided according to the split.
Larvikitt is Norway's most important natural stone. It is
widespread in Vestfold, especially along the coast between
Tønsberg and Langesundsfjorden. The stone is excavated in
large rectangular blocks and exported unprocessed throughout
the world, but substantially to southern Europe and the
east. Larvikitt was named Norway's national rock in 2008.
Marble is mined in Fauske in Nordland and exported
substantially as a raw block.
Quartzite slate is taken out in major fractures in Alta
and Oppdal, and full-lime slate at Otta. A significant part
of the slate is processed and converted in standard format.
Hump, sand and gravel
The raw materials sand, gravel and crushed stone are the
common term for mineral raw materials used for construction
purposes. The raw materials are extracted from mountains by
blasting (rock, crushed stone) or from natural loads and
gravel deposits). The industry also has significant ripple
effects in processing and transport. The bulk goes to the
domestic market. About 20 per cent of the production volume
Metallic ore is a term for rocks that contain metals with
a specific gravity of over 5 grams / cm 3.
The operation of copper, zinc and leaded sulfide ores is
soon history. The mines at Løkken, Røros, Sulitjelma and
Mofjellet have long been closed, while Grong mines in
Nord-Trøndelag and Bleikvassli mine in Nordland were closed
in 1998. Nickel and Olivin AS in Ballangen, Nordland, which
produced nickel / copper and cobalt concentrate, was
discontinued in 2003.
Rana Gruber AS, which operates the iron ore deposit in
Dunderlandsdalen, Nordland, went from mining to underground
mining in 1998.
A / S Sydvaranger in Finnmark, Norway's largest iron ore
mining company of all time, was closed down in the autumn of
1997 after 87 years of operation. The operation was resumed
in 2010 with new owners, but was closed down again. In 2016,
Sydvaranger Gruve AS had limited production of iron ore from
previously extruded pulp.
New Fosdalen Bergverk AS, Nord-Trøndelag, tufted on iron
ore, ceased operations in the fall of 1997.
Titania AS, Hauge in Dalane, produces 0.5 million tonnes
of ilmenite concentrate annually. About 25 per cent goes to
the ilmite plant in Tyssedal, 20 per cent to Kronos Titan
AS, Fredrikstad, and the rest to export. Kronos produces
30,000 tonnes of titanium pigment annually. Titania and
Kronos are owned by US Kronos International Ltd.
Energy Minerals (Coal)
Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani AS (SNSK) in Svalbard
is owned by the state. SNSK produced about 300,000 tonnes of
coal in 1998. From 1997 there has been regular operations in
the Svea mine in Van Mijenfjorden and in mine 7 in
Longyearbyen. Production increased significantly in the
first years after Svea started. In 2016, 0.96 million tonnes
of coal were sold.
The operation of the coal mines on Svalbard has long been
in deficit. In 2017, it was decided to discontinue coal
operations in Svea and Lucknefjell, while the operation of
Mine 7 continues.
In 1539 a rock arrangement was introduced which followed
Saxon mountain rights and was written in German. In 1683
came a mountain ordinance to replace it. In 1812 the real
rock system was introduced, while the first real rock law
dates from 1842.
The Directorate for Mineral Management with the Mining
Master of Svalbard (formerly the Bergvesenet) is the State's
administrative body for mining activities, with headquarters
in Trondheim and a branch office in Longyearbyen. Of
particular importance to the management is the Mineral Act
Mining was carried out since the 13th century until the
17th century, essentially on complex sulfide ores containing
silver, copper, lead and zinc. The Norwegian iron industry
dates from the 16th century (Fossum works at Skien was the
first in 1542). At one time there were 18 small ironworks in
operation, these smelted iron from a number of small, rich
deposits in southern and eastern Norway. Some of the most
important ironworks were Næs Jernverk, Fossum works, Ulefos
Jernworks, Fritzøe ironworks, Bærums Verk, Eidsvoll Jernverk
and Frolands Verk. They were based on charcoal smelting, and
gradually disappeared from the 1850s.