The rapid economic development of South Korea in the 1980s and 1990s
took place in a society that was still strongly influenced
by traditional values and Confucian social and family views.
Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of SKR and acronym for South Korea. Lifetime employment according to the Japanese model was
common in larger workplaces, which gave employees financial
and social security but led to a fairly inefficient business
Since the beginning of the 21st century, South Korea has
been forced to modernize both business and societal views.
Forms of employment and social values have changed. Social
insurance was expanded during the 1990s, but gradually the
problems with finding sufficient manpower for both continued
economic development and increasing care needs for the
elderly increase, as immigration is very small.
Independent unions have been allowed since 1989, but the
rate of membership is low. A large part of the workforce has
uncertain employment conditions, which has led to strikes.
The relatively early retirement age in the 1990s has put
pressure on the state pension fund and many Koreans are
therefore living on privately saved assets. In the country,
private savings are expected to be able to support the
pension fund when pensions decrease. Attempts to create a
labor market for the elderly are also ongoing to compensate
for the dropout. It is common for gainfully employed
children to provide financial buffer for their parents.
Healthcare is well developed but expensive. There are
major differences in health care between different strata of
society and between city and countryside. Part of the health
care system consists of traditional health care with herbal
Crime in the country is generally low except for crimes
against women. However, women's rights have been
strengthened in the country over the last ten years. Sons
and daughters now have equal inheritance rights and women
can divorce. Women have the same political rights as men and
gender discrimination is prohibited. However, childcare is
poorly developed, which is why even highly educated women
leave the labor market early. Domestic violence is a serious
crime, but many South Koreans may not consider it a matter
for the justice system. Illegal sex industry, especially
trafficking, has a large scope. The Anti-Discrimination Act
does not include sexual orientation.
During the latter part of the 20th century, large-scale
adoptions of children took place in South Korea. Nowadays,
only about 2,500 are removed annually, of which just under
half to other countries.
Seoul, the capital of South Korea, the country's largest city and
administrative, cultural, political and economic center; 10.5 million input
(2010); With Inchons and Seoul's satellite cities, the population of the
metropolitan region is 23 million. Seoul forms a rough, thanks to pear shape
with the Han River as a curved belt dividing the city into a northern and a
southern half. In the middle of the river, on the island of Yoido, lies the
country's parliament as well as the headquarters of many large and medium-sized
companies. Newer residential areas with large, uniform housing estates are
located especially south of the river. The city and much of the country's
administration is in the north. Here are also the city's relatively few historic
buildings, such as the Kyongbok King's main palace of the Yid dynasty which,
however, to a large extent is beautifully done reconstruction. The city's two
largest markets, Namdaemun and Tongdaemun, are close to the center of the
northern district. All over the city are the small sweatshops or backyard
workshops, whose production has been a contributing factor to the rapid economic
development of South Korea from the mid-1960's. More modern industrial
establishments are located on the periphery of the city, preferably to the south
Seoul is connected to all parts of South Korea through a well-developed road
network and rail system with lanes preferably laid in a north-south-going
direction, radiating from the capital with the main axis between Seoul and
Busan. The metro, which opened in 1974, is used daily by 4.4 million. people,
and the Web is among the world's largest. On the outskirts of the city is Korea
International Airport, Kimpo. A new airport, Kimhae, at the city of Inchon,
Seoul's port city 50 km to the west, opened in 2001.
When the Koryo king Munjong (1046-83) in 1068 established a summer palace on
the site, the area gained an urban feel. Its original name was Hanyang, but when
the city became capital of the Yid dynasty in 1394, the name was changed to
Hansong. Seoul was the capital of Korea until the country's division in 1948 and
then the capital of South Korea. A census of 1429 shows that the capital had
about 100,000 residents; at the beginning of the Japanese colonial period in
the early 1900's. the population was increased to 250,000. During the Japanese
colonial rule (1910-45), the city continued to serve as the administrative
center under the name Keijo. However, Seoul has been the city's name for
centuries, and by the Republic of Korea (South Korea)) founding in 1948 became
Seoul capital's official name. By the end of the Korean War in 1953, Seoul had
been totally destroyed, but already around 1960 the city had 2.5 million.
including many refugees from North Korea, whose border is almost 40 km away.
South Korea's explosive economic growth in the 1960's and 1970's led the city to
grow into a megametropolis, which by the year 2000 has just under a quarter of
the country's total population. The city hosted the Olympics in 1988.