South Sudan is one of the least developed countries in
the world. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of SSPS and acronym for South Sudan. The small care sector that existed before the
Sudanese civil war broke out in 1983 was destroyed or
largely abandoned during the war. At the time of
independence in 2011, large parts of South Sudan could in
principle be regarded as humanitarian disaster areas.
Common diseases include malaria, meningitis, measles,
yellow fever, whooping cough, river blindness, sleep
sickness, cholera and polio. Only about 16% of residents are
estimated to have access to some form of health care. In the
whole country there are about 120 doctors and only a hundred
nurses. The previous medical training was moved to northern
Sudan during the war. The government in South Sudan has set
the goal of having one primary care physician per 25,000
residents and one hospital per 50,000 residents, which the
government itself admits will take at least 20 years to
achieve, although medical training would begin immediately.
The care offered today is provided to more than 85% of
foreign aid organizations. According to UN estimates, every
sixth child dies before the age of one year and every
seventh before the age of five. Maternal mortality is the
highest in the world, just over 2% according to UN
estimates. Only one in ten births take place in the presence
of knowledgeable staff. In the whole country there are only
about 100 trained midwives. UNICEF estimates that only 10%
of children have full vaccination protection against the
most common childhood diseases.
According to the Government of South Sudan, 27% of the
adult population is literate. The distribution between men
and women is not apparent. The high illiteracy rate, the
lack of drugs and medical equipment as well as the great
distances and the poor roads are considered to contribute to
the high death rates. During the rainy season, most roads
become impassable and it becomes impossible to get to a
hospital, although one would be relatively close.
About 300,000 South Sudanese are estimated to be infected
with HIV or have developed AIDS. The spread is feared to
increase rapidly when many South Sudanese are expected to
return from neighboring countries where the infection is
Communications within the country are hampered not only
by the poor condition of the roads but also by all the mines
laid out during the war. Great efforts have been made to
destroy mines, but there are still long stretches of road
and thousands of hectares of usable land that are fatal to
enter due to undisturbed mines. In addition, there are
strong suspicions that armed groups have continued to lay
out new mines in previously cleared areas.
Pure drinking water is a luxury that less than half of
South Sudan's population has access to. Although malaria
occurs throughout the country, only 12% of households are
estimated to have access to impregnated mosquito nets.
A year before the Sudanese independence in 1956, the
first civil war broke out. The purpose was to achieve
representation and greater regional autonomy. For 16 years,
the Sudanese government fought against Anyanya army of
liberation. In 1971, former Lieutenant Joseph Lagu brought
together all the smaller guerrilla groups in his South Sudan
Liberation Movement (SSLM). It was the first time in the
past 15 years that the guerrilla was given a united command
structure and leadership. It was also the first time that
SSLM could negotiate and speak on behalf of a unified South
Sudan. The World Council of Churches (WCC) and the All
Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) intervened as mediators
in the conflict, leading in 1972 to the signing of the Addis
Ababa Agreement that created the Autonomous Region of South
In 1983, Sudanese President Gaafar Nimeiry declared the
entire country an Islamic state to be subject to Sharia law.
The same was true for the non-Islamic majority in South
Sudan. The region gained its autonomy on June 5, 1983, and
the Addis Ababa agreement was terminated at the same time.
This led to John Garang setting up the Sudan People's
Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) and thus the 2nd
Sudanese civil war broke out. It lasted for 22 years and
thus became the longest civil war in Africa. In 2005, with
the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and a
number of donor countries as brokers, a peace agreement was
negotiated in Nairobi. led to the establishment of an
autonomous government in South Sudan.
2013-15 Civil War
In December, parts of the military, with Deputy Vice
President Riek Machar at the head, tried to oust Kiir, but
the coup attempt failed. The situation quickly developed
into civil war, as the dividing line between Kiir and Machar
was of an ethnic nature. Around the country, people
spontaneously began harassing or killing people from the
other tribe. At the same time, about half of the military
deserted to Machar. At the beginning of January 2014, the
fighting was so widespread that several countries chose to
evacuate their citizens.
The Civil War was rolling back and forth through 2014,
while the main cities were falling to one, soon the other.
Several ceasefires were negotiated in place, but never
lasted more than a few hours. The UN was also quickly
involved when Kiir accused the UN mission in the country of
sticking with Machar. It led to numerous attacks on the UN
throughout the country. Both sides carried out massacres on
the civilian population in the areas they occupied and in
April 2014, 58 were killed when young people attacked a UN
base in Bor, where 5,000 civilians had sought refuge.
In November 2014, the International Crisis Group, (ICG)
estimated that 50-100,000 were killed during this year's
matches. International human rights organizations have
already, from the latter half of 2014, urged the United
States and the other Western arms suppliers to the regime to
work for international arms blockade under the auspices of
the UN Security Council. In vain.
In mid-January 2015, Kiir and Machar signed a party
reunion agreement (SPLM). There had been so many agreements
between the conflicting parties over the previous 12 months
that the outside world doubted its viability.
In March, the Security Council escalated pressure on the
warring parties by imposing harsh, targeted sanctions on a
list of people accused of committing war crimes. They got
their funds frozen and got a travel ban. It motivated the
parties to negotiate, and in August a peace agreement was
signed with the East African Development Organization IGAD
as a mediator. It was followed by a final ceasefire in
November. 1.6 million however, people were still internally
displaced, 600,000 fled to neighboring countries, 300,000
killed and 4 million. needed emergency food assistance.
In October, Kiir transformed per. decree the division of
the country into 10 states into a division into 28 states -
predominantly divided by ethnic lines. A number of
opposition parties and NGOs criticized the decree and in
November Kiir therefore got Parliament's backing for the new
division of South Sudan.
As part of the peace agreement, Riek Machar returned to
the country in March 2016 and was reinstated as Vice
President. 30 months are then set aside to prepare and
conduct elections in the country.