Although Venezuela, thanks to its oil revenues, is a rich
country relative to its neighbors in the region, the country
has had a high proportion of poor people. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of VZS and acronym for Venezuela. In the 1980s and
1990s, the percentage of the poor in the population grew to
about 60 percent, but in the 2000s that figure was halved
due to a rising oil price. Average nutrition, life, writing
and literacy improved, but there were still major
differences between the city and the countryside. Large
slums have also grown up in the big cities.
The social insurance system, which includes, for example,
unemployment insurance and sickness insurance, has largely
been replaced by other government programs, so-called
missionaries, which are controlled directly by the
Registered unemployment is low, just over 7 per cent
according to official figures (2014), but very many people
work in the informal sector and fall outside social security
systems and statistics.
Crime has increased dramatically over the last ten years
and in 2015 the number of murders was 28,000 according to
statistics from NGOs, making Venezuela one of the most
violent countries in the world.
1998 The start of the Bolivarian Revolution
On December 6, 1998, the leader of the 1992 coup attempt,
Hugo Chávez, was elected president with 56.5% of the vote.
In his accession speech, Chávez declared that he would
extend the constitution, which he termed "dead," through a
"peaceful revolution" to fight poverty and restructure the $
23 billion foreign debt. dollars. to this end, a
constitutional assembly was set up that within 6 months was
to draft a new constitution.
In the first months of 1999, Chávez announced his
"peaceful revolution" through his diplomatic corps and
directed a television program that received and directly
"solved" the people's issues and problems. In the election
to the Constituent Assembly on July 25, 75% voted for
Chávez's Patriotic Pol, thereby gaining an absolute majority
in the assembly.
In September negotiations were held between the guerrilla
organization ELN and the Colombian government in Venezuela.
Chávez had begun to play an important role in the Colombian
conflict, rejecting a request by the United States to use
air bases in Venezuela to "fight the drug trade" in
Colombia. Many saw the US's maneuvers as an attempt to
invade Colombia and settle the country's guerrilla
In a referendum on December 15, 70% voted in favor of the
new constitution renaming the country "República Bolivariana
de Venezuela" and dissolving the Congress. Only half of the
voters voted, and the low turnout was due to, among other
things. the extensive floods that ended up costing 50,000
On January 30, 2000, the Constitutional Assembly was
dissolved as planned. Before then, however, it had set May
28 as the date for holding presidential and parliamentary
elections. The opposition could not mark itself through
parliament or the Constitutional Assembly, both dissolved.
As presidential candidates, it asked Claudio Fermín of the
National Assembly and the independent Francisco Arias - with
the aim of "trapping Chávez".
The elections were ultimately held in June, and Chávez
was re-elected by an overwhelming majority for the period up
to 2006. In August, he undertook a trip where he met with
the leaders of the major oil-producing countries. That led
to harsh criticism from the United States after he met with
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein in Baghdad. Chavez was the
first democratically elected head of state to visit Iraq
since the 1990 Gulf War.