Zambia is one of the world's poorest countries. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of ZWB and acronym for Zambia. Despite
efforts to fight poverty over the past decade, about 2/3 of
the population still lives in extreme poverty. The worst is
the situation in the countryside, where only about half of
the population has access to clean water. Almost one in ten
children dies during their first year of life and every
fifth child under five is malnourished.
Difficult economic problems in the latter part of the
1980s forced savings and cuts in the social security system;
inter alia health care fees were introduced in 1990. Of
public expenditure, 11 percent is spent on health care
(2009), but access to care is very poor; there are 19
hospital beds (2008) and one doctor (2006) per 10,000
residents. Qualified personnel are available for half of the
deliveries. Common health risks are malnutrition,
tuberculosis, parasite infestation and leprosy. Because
Zambia is also one of the most severely affected countries
in Africa in terms of the number of HIV-infected, the health
care sector is under great strain. In 2009, 14 percent of
the population aged 15-49 were assessed to carry the virus.
Lusaka, the capital and largest city of Zambia; 1.7 million residents (2009).
The town lies at an altitude of 1300 m on a flat limestone plateau in the
southeastern part of the country, where it is a traffic hub.
Up to World War II, Lusaka was a planned city and a city for the whites of
what was then northern Rhodesia.. Only after the war were residential
neighborhoods built for the Africans. After independence in 1964, the strong and
uncontrolled growth that has continued since then began. In the central part of
the city, modern office high-rise buildings are predominant, while the rest is
characterized by low-rise housing, which is spreading ever further from the city
center. The business base consists of the central administration, trade, crafts
and light industry in addition to many educational institutions, including the
country's university. But there is a chronic shortage of housing and work for
the steady flow of immigrants from rural areas. It is estimated that half of the
city's residents live in slums around the city, without public transport and
under very poor social and health conditions.
The town originated on a subway track on the one-lane railroad that reached
south from there in 1905 and was named after a local chief Lusaakas. Farmers
from South Africa established themselves as farmers in the area, considered to
be one of the most god-forsaken places in Northern Rhodesia. Their presence,
together with a good water supply, provided the basis for an actual city,
officially recognized in 1913, whose square street pattern can still be seen in
the city center. In 1931 it was decided to make Lusaka the capital of Northern
Rhodesia, and an extensive construction east of the railway was started. The
economic world crisis put an end to the work, and it was a half-finished capital
with a few thousand residents inaugurated in 1935.