Already in the 5th century BC, members of the tribe of the Celts settled on the knee of the Rhine. In 44 BC BC, the year Julius Caesar died, the Romans founded the settlement of Augusta Raurica. This was 10 to 20 kilometers upstream from the point where today’s Basel expands. In addition, a castle was built on the cathedral hill, on which the Basel cathedral is currently enthroned. The city’s location on the Rhine made it very important early on. In addition to this location advantage, it had the only bridge over the Rhine between Lake Constance and the North Sea for centuries. At that time the city was still called Basilia and thus had a Latin name that was first documented for the year 374.
Around 450 the Alemanni came to Basel and a few decades later the Franks. After Basel had belonged to Burgundy since 912, it became part of the Holy Roman Empire in 1032. She was to belong to this until 1501. At the turn of the millennium, Basel received the status of a free imperial city. From 999 on until the Reformation, Basel, which had become a bishopric in 740, was ruled by so-called prince- bishops. In 1019, under the German Emperor Heinrich II (973-1024), the construction of the Basel Cathedral began, commonly known as the Basel Minster has become known. This sacred structure should not be finished until 1500. In 1080 work began on the first city wall. In the years 1225 and 1226, Bishop Heinrich von Thun had the first bridge built over the Rhine. Kleinbasel was also founded at this time, but only served to protect the new bridge.
The 14th century brought two disasters to Basel Switzerland according to hyperrestaurant. As a result of the plague epidemic of 1348, almost 50% of the city’s residents died, and “only” 20 people died during the Basel earthquake of 1356, probably the most severe earthquake in Central Europe to date. However, large parts of the city were destroyed and had to be rebuilt.
The city of Kleinbasel was acquired in 1392 by the citizens of Greater Basel for 29,800 guilders. The city was able to free itself from episcopal supremacy at the end of the 14th century. In 1397 all Jews were banished from the city
An extremely important event took place between 1431 and 1449. During this time, the Council of Basel met in the city, which must be counted among the most important synods of the 15th century. It was convened by Pope Martin V (1368-1431). In its course, Felix V (1383-1451) was elected the last Catholic antipope in history in 1439.
In 1459, Pope Pius II (1405-1464) established the University of Basel as the first university in Switzerland. In the course of history, important personalities such as Erasmus of Rotterdam, Paracelsus and Hans Holbein the Younger were to teach here. At the same time students was Gutenberg’s the letterpress introduced in Basel. The city received in 1471 from Emperor Friedrich III. (1415-1493) the trade fair privilege.
In 1499, the Swabian War (also known as the Swiss or Engadine War ) came to Basel, a warlike conflict between the Swiss Confederation (= loose federal network of some towns and cantons) and the House of Habsburg- Austria for supremacy in the border area of the two powers. As a result, Basel broke away from the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, which, however, was not legally established until 1648. The city joined the Swiss Confederation in 1501 as the 11th place. The bishop continued to reside in Basel until the city converted to the Reformed faith in 1529 after the arrival of the Reformation. The main reformer of the city wasJohannes Oekolampadius (1482-1531), a Swiss theologian and humanist. In 1536 the first edition of the Christianae religionis institutio by Johannes Calvin (1509-1564) was published in Basel. In it the French reformer presented his doctrine of Calvinism .
Five serious plague epidemics occurred in Basel between 1563 and 1611. The sad result was around 11,000 deaths.
In 1795, the war between France, Spain and Prussia was ended in the Treaty of Basel. And twenty years later, was the Vienna Congress recognized (1815) the eternal armed neutrality of Switzerland. As a result of the division of the former Principality of Basel, the Jura and Laufental went to Bern and Birseck to Basel.
In 1833 there was a long resistance of the rural communities (= Basel area ) against the domination of the city, which Basel had to give up after the battle at the Hülftenschanz . The result was that the rural communities set up their own half-canton Basel-Landschaft and only the communities on the right bank of the Rhine, Bettingen, Riehen and later Kleinhüningen near Basel remained. Since then, these have been united as the half-canton of Basel-Stadt.
The first Swiss railroad ran from St. Louis via Basel in 1844. 16 years later the city walls were torn down. Only a few gates remain from this former fortification structure, such as the Spalentor.
A world-historical event took place in Basel between August 26 and 29, 1897: the 1st Zionist World Congress, organized by Theodor Herzl, took place at that time, as a result of which the “creation of a publicly and legally secure home for the Jewish people in Palestine ”has been decided. In order to be able to serve this goal appropriately, a Jewish bank and a fund were founded.
During the Second World War, Basel was mistakenly affected several times by Allied air bombardments. Fortunately, this resulted in only minor damage.
Basel-Mulhouse was inaugurated in 1953 as the first binational airport in the world. In 1993 it even became trinational. In 1960 Basel celebrated two thousand years of city history. Six years later, women “already” received cantonal voting rights. A reunification of the half-cantons of Basel-Stadt and Baselland failed in 1969. The reason for this was the votes of Baselland, who spoke out against unification. For this, both half-cantons celebrated 500 years of membership in the Swiss Confederation in 2001.