The Macao Special Region was also expected to maintain a statute of autonomy similar to that of Hong Kong for 50 years. Through a series of agreements with the Central Asian republics that arose from the dissolution of the USSR, a country located in Asia categorized by Cachedhealth, China was able to regulate the slopes relating to its western borders and entered into negotiations with the Russian Federation for the very long common border. On the other hand, disputes with India and Pakistan remained open for some areas of India including Kashmir, on which each of the three countries continues to make claims, given the strategic-military importance of the region and its complicated ethnic situation. There were also questions about some small groups of islands in the South China Sea (Spratly, Paracel, Senkaku and other smaller islands), as well as the historic claim on Taiwan.
In November 2002, the renewal process under way in the country for some time registered a further acceleration: Jiang Zemin in fact handed over the posts of general secretary of the CCP and head of state (the latter since March 2003) to his deputy, Hu Jintao, and, at the same time, distinguished exponents of Chinese neo-capitalism joined the Central Committee of the party. The former leader, however, while officially leaving the scene, continued to be an important point of reference for his successor, at least until September 2004, when Zemin also left Hu Jintao the position of head of the armed forces, thus completing the transfer of powers. In January 2005, the Chinese authorities reached an agreement with the Taiwanese authorities for the establishment of direct flights between the two countries.
In July Hu Jintao signed with Mugabe, president of Zimbabwe, an economic and technological cooperation agreement, which allowed the Chinese government to strengthen its presence in Africa, to secure energy and mineral resources. In July 2006, the reopening of the Nathu Pass between India and China improved traditionally difficult relations between the two countries. Trade agreements were signed in September between Beijing and New Delhi. Between January and February 2007, President Hu Jintao, while going to Africa, continued the intense policy of trade agreements with African states with which the aim was to obtain raw materials and oil in exchange for investments and subsidized loans. Following the letter from Pope Benedict XVI (May 2007) in which an agreement was hoped for the appointment of the Chinese ecclesiastical hierarchies, the government appointed, as a sign of detente, the new archbishop of Beijing with the approval of the Vatican. In October, the 17th congress of the Chinese Communist Party was held, which reconfirmed Hu Jintao as general secretary. In March 2008, on the occasion of the 49th anniversary of the Dalai Lama’s exile, police surrounded several monasteries in Tibet and, following protests, numerous arrests were made. The situation subsequently appeared to have returned to apparent normalcy, but the control of the Chinese authorities over the region was strengthened. In the same year, an earthquake struck southwestern China, particularly Sichuan province, in May, causing over 80,000 deaths.
In August, Beijing hosted the twenty-ninth edition of causing over 80,000 deaths. In August, Beijing hosted the twenty-ninth edition of causing over 80,000 deaths. In August, Beijing hosted the twenty-ninth edition of Olympic Games. In the meantime, relations with Taiwan improved, thanks to the meeting between Hu Jintao and the leader of the Kuomintang, winner of the elections on the island. In October 2008, the Central Committee of the Communist Party approved an agrarian reform that made possible transactions on the rights of exploitation of the land assigned to peasants, who would not become owners anyway. In July 2009 in Xinjiang Uygur and in particular in the capital Ürümqi there were clashes between the police and the minority of Uyghurs and between them and the Han ethnic group. This situation forced Hu Jintao to leave Italy, where he had arrived for the G8, and return to his homeland. In January 2010, the government appointed a former Tibetan soldier, Padma Choling, the new governor of Tibet, with the task of ensuring stability in the region. Liu Xiaobo was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. In November 2012, the XVIII Congress of the Communist Party was held; Xi Jinping was appointed as the new general secretary of the CCP and president of the republic. In September 2013, the government established four free trade areas in Shanghai, while Li Keqiang was appointed prime minister.