From being an agricultural community, Colombia is rapidly developing into an urban and industrialized society where the majority live in cities. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of COL and acronym for Colombia. But agriculture is still one of Colombia’s most important industries and in the countryside there are many roots to today’s conflicts. The distorted distribution of land and rural poverty has long been a major social problem. Drug cultivation has the strongest foothold where the alternatives are few and where the state presence in the form of schools, roads and opportunities for other income is small.
During the time with the National Front (see History), a modernization process based on industrialization and expansion of the state apparatus was initiated. Colombia had relatively stable economic growth and expanded the school as well as a social insurance system with pensions and free healthcare for children, the elderly and the poor.
The violence and political crisis of the 1980s and 1990s led to a deep economic downturn around the turn of the millennium, but since 2003, developments have reversed. Colombia has had one of Latin America’s strongest economies, with growth of around 5–6 percent, driven primarily by high international oil and coal prices. Despite the growth, about 40 percent of the population lives in poverty, and the gaps between different social groups calculated by the Giniko coefficient are among the largest in the world. Unemployment is officially around 10 percent, but underemployment is widespread and millions of Colombians work in the informal sector, which is estimated to provide about 55 percent of the population.
Colombia’s economy in this century has been based mainly on the production and export of coffee. During the period 1921-57, intensive utilization of the country’s oil reserves took place, which was eventually used up. That brought in a US $ 1.137 million profit. At the same time, North American companies controlled 80-90% of banana production and mining, as well as 98% of electricity and gas production.
The post-World War I economic crisis was eased for Colombia by the United States in the period 1922-26 paid $ 25 million as a replacement for the United States in 1903 had robbed Colombia province of Panama. At the same time, however, there was a sharp increase in the number of labor disputes during this period – often with violent consequences. With the crackdown in 1929, it split into the Conservative Party and the Liberals won the presidential election. The Liberal government recognized the workers’ right to organize and the conflicts became fewer. In contrast, political conflicts increased and political violence increased. In the 1934 election, Alfonso Lopez won from the Liberal Party and his government started a cautious land reform and social legislation aimed at offsetting some of the disparities in society. This cautious reform policy aroused great opposition – even among groups within the liberal party – and towards the end of his presidency, Lopez swung more to the right. The right turn was continued by his liberal successor. The social reform program was halted. Among other things. because the sale of coffee production was made more difficult by the outbreak of World War II and the state’s finances therefore deteriorated. Lopez was re-elected president in 1942, and the split into a right-wing and a left-wing in the Liberal Party became even clearer. This was the basis of the 1946 Conservative election victory. World War I and the state’s finances therefore deteriorated. Lopez was re-elected president in 1942, and the split into a right-wing and a left-wing in the Liberal Party became even clearer. This was the basis of the 1946 Conservative election victory. World War I and the state’s finances therefore deteriorated. Lopez was re-elected president in 1942, and the split into a right-wing and a left-wing in the Liberal Party became even clearer. This was the basis of the 1946 Conservative election victory.
Since the equator runs through Colombia, the country is in the tropical climate zone. There are four different climatic regions, depending on the altitude. In the lowlands (Llanos) there is a tropical climate above 24 ° C, between 1000 and 2000 m temperate tropical climate (17–30 ° C), between 2000 and 3000 m cold tropical climate (12–17 ° C) and in the mountain regions (Páramos) 3000 m altitude high alpine glacier climate (below 12 ° C).
The capital Bogotá is at an altitude of 2600 m above sea level and has an annual mean of 14 ° C. Every year there are two rainy seasons (April and October) and two dry seasons, but they are not extreme.
The greatest amount of precipitation falls on the western edge of the Andes. In the southern part of the country approx. 3000 mm of precipitation is measured per year, in the north up to 10,000 mm. Some places with a rainfall of up to 16,000 mm per year are among the rainiest areas on earth. It rains less heavily in the eastern parts of the country. The amount of precipitation in the high valleys and high basins is about 1000 mm due to the rain shadow side. Parts of the Caribbean coast have very little rain due to the trade winds (less than 400 mm annual rainfall).
The first months of the dry or rainy season are December and January and May to July. However, the tourist locations are also very popular with Colombians at this time of year. Towards the end of the dry season the land is withered and at the end of the rainy season the tropical storms rage. Floods are not uncommon. In the highlands it can get cold at night.