The development of social conditions has been strongly dependent on political developments since the liberation in 1968. The dictator Nguema’s rule in the 1970s caused persecution of minorities, collapse of health care and economic poverty. This led to difficult conditions for large sections of the population. Conditions have improved in recent years, but health care is still poorly developed and there is a shortage of healthcare personnel. In 2004, there were three doctors and a total of five nurses and midwives per 10,000 residents. Child mortality has increased in recent years. About 19 percent of young children were malnourished. The sanitary conditions in the country are substandard, which means that infectious and parasitic diseases such as malaria, typhoid and dysentery are widespread. Malaria harvests most victims. The number of AIDS victims has increased in recent years, mainly because of prostitution and ignorance of how the disease spreads. In 2005, approximately 9,000 people were estimated to live with AIDS. Check to see Equatorial Guinea population.
Two-thirds of Equatorial Guinea’s population lives on less than two dollars a day. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of GNQ and acronym for Equatorial Guinea. Gender inequality is high, but Equatorial Guinea has not ratified any of the UN conventions on gender equality in marriage, working life or education. Human trafficking is also a major problem. Above all, children from neighboring countries Benin and Nigeria are sold as workers in the cities or forced to prostitute themselves. Equatorial Guinea has initiated cooperation with the UN to rectify the problem, but it has not yet produced any noticeable results.
Conquered by the Portuguese in 1474, the territory was sold in 1778 to Spain, which, however, exercised limited authority only after the middle of the 19th century. Colonial activity was intensified after the coming to power of F. Franco and in 1959 the colony, in its two components, insular and continental, became an integral part of Spain as an ‘equatorial province’. Proclaimed independent on October 12, 1968, G. was subjected to the corrupt and violent regime of F. Macias Nguema until 1979, when a military coup overthrew the dictator, who was sentenced to death and executed. Power was assumed by T. Obiang Nguema, who in 1982 was elected president and in 1987 founded the Partido democratico de Guinea Ecuatorial as a single party. Despite the introduction of multi-partyism (1991), in the following years the repression of the opposition allowed in all consultations the affirmation of Nguema, re-elected for the seventh time in 2016, and of his party, which obtained 99 in the 2008 legislative seats out of 100.
On the international level, the border disputes that arose in 1997 with Nigeria following the discovery of oil fields were settled in 2000 with the signing of an agreement that sanctioned the respective areas of competence.