In Kenya, there is a state system for pension benefits and social security contributions. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of KEN and acronym for Kenya. Health care is run by the state, but also through various mission societies, private charities and commercial companies.
Despite efforts to provide free care to the poor, many, especially in rural areas, still lack access to health care; there are 14 hospital beds (2006) and one doctor (2004) per 10,000 residents. Qualified personnel are available in almost half of the births (2009). In 2009, 5 percent of public expenditure went to health care. The incidence of HIV / AIDS has decreased in recent years; of the population aged 15-49, about 6 percent is estimated to carry the infection (2009).
Although there is a relatively large middle class in the country, poverty is still widespread; In 2005, 40 percent were estimated to live in poverty (below US $ 2/day). In rural areas, almost half of the population does not have access to clean water (2008). The severe drought in 2011 further aggravated the situation.
1982 Arap Moi strengthens its power
Still, the August 82 crisis led to violent riots as a military plot culminated in large popular demonstrations and extensive looting of businesses and public buildings in the capital Nairobi. Those responsible for the coup attempt all came from the Air Force and this was simply disbanded after troops loyal to President Moi crushed the uprising. The repression spread to the university, where dozens of teachers and students were arrested. Oginga Odinga was placed under house arrest and the university was closed indefinitely. The consequences of the failed coup fundamentally changed the political situation in the country, and drastically increased the suspicion among the various political groups that were part of KANU.
In May 83, Moi revealed plans for a new coup organized by his own minister Charles Njonjo and allegedly supported by Israel and South Africa. In the midst of the confusion, the president printed elections that he won big and where the biggest losers were Njonjo and his supporters.
In the foreign policy field, in November Moi made 83 decision to reopen the border with Tanzania after a summit between the two countries and Uganda was held in Arusha. At the same time, the summit decided to initiate a gradual coordination of economic policy between the three countries – six years after the East African Common Market officially collapsed.
President Moi increased his own powers at Parliament’s expense, mandated all public servants to be members of KANU and replaced the secret elections in the party with the public, in order to make it easier to intimidate. The moderate women’s organization Manndeleo Ya Wanawake was stopped by the government in 86. Meanwhile, Amnesty International and other human rights organizations made the government responsible for the torture and murder of oppositionists – especially members of the “subversive” Mwakenya movement.
Through October and November 87, protests by Muslim groups in Mombasa served as a pretext for a new wave of regime repression, and the University of Nairobi was closed again. In December, a series of meetings took place along the border with Uganda, and Libyan diplomats were expelled, accused of encouraging public unrest. Both incidents seemed to alert new riots.
Despite the tough structural adjustment programs prepared by the IMF and the World Bank, Moi and his supporters won the May 88 elections – both internally in KANU and in the state apparatus. In August, Moi further tightened his authoritarian rule as he brought the judiciary under his personal control and extended the timeframe for preventive detention from 24 hours to 14 days – with no obligation to place the detainee before a judge.
The extent of corruption and violations of human rights took drastic for the following year. In April 89, Vice President Josephat Karanja lost the confidence of Parliament after being accused of acting for his own gain and for his tribe’s. Karanja resigned and was subsequently excluded by KANU. In February 90, Foreign Minister Robert Ouko was assassinated. He had been a sharp critic of the corruption at ministerial level. An investigation into the murder carried out by the British Scotland Yard revealed that the culprits were to be found among the president’s closest associates. This triggered a new wave of popular protests against the government.
Democratization demands extended to the whole country, and the Protestant and Catholic Church joined the demand. When a Protestant priest engaged in the democratization movement died under mysterious circumstances, it triggered new demonstrations. The government responded by issuing a ban on the recognition of new political parties.