Lesotho is one of the least developed countries in the world and about half the population lives in poverty. Nearly half of children under five are malnourished. The worst is the situation in the countryside. However, the supply of clean water is relatively good, at least compared to several other countries in the region. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of LSO and acronym for Lesotho.
The fact that many miners were allowed to leave their jobs in South Africa has not only increased unemployment, but has also affected the spread of HIV. Lesotho is one of the hardest hit countries in HIV/AIDS; 24 percent of the population aged 15-49 are estimated to be infected (2009). Check to see Lesotho population.
Access to care is very poor; there are 13 hospital beds (2006) and one doctor (2003) per 10,000 residents. Qualified help is available at just over 60 percent of deliveries. Of public spending, 8 percent is spent on health care (2009).
The territory corresponds to the highest sector of southern Africa, having its vertices in the Dragons Mountains (Thabana Ntlenyana, 3482 m), which border it on the eastern side; it is mainly mountainous and also includes the Maloti Mountains and their southern expansion, the Thaba Putsoa, as well as the Central Range, arranged transversely. On the western side of the town, on the other hand, there is a plateau (1500-1800 m), made up of ancient Triassic conglomerates and sandstones, while the central and eastern reliefs are formed by basalts, superimposed on the sandstones at the beginning of the Cretaceous period. The Lesotho falls entirely within the catchment area of the Orange River, a tributary of the Atlantic; The river flows through the town with a NE-SW direction, receiving numerous tributaries, such as the Caledon, which marks part of the western border. The climate is rather dry, with significant temperature variations. Rainfall is concentrated in the austral summer months (October-April); the average annual temperatures are around 9-10 ° C, but during the colder months they often drop below freezing; there is no lack of snowfall. The vegetation is mainly made up of mountain meadows and arboreal patches.
Originally inhabited by Bushmen and Hottentots, the Lesotho was permanently occupied at the beginning of the 19th century. from the Bantu ethnic group of the Basotho, who today make up over 95% of the population, while the rest is represented by the Zulu and a small minority of other communities. The population, which in 1875 was around 128,000 residents, grew rapidly, reaching 560,000 residents. in 1936 and 1,213,960 residents in 1976, up to over 2,000,000 residents. Due to the poor economic possibilities offered by the country, and in the face of a high rate of demographic increase, emigration to the Republic of South Africa is significant. which, despite the suppression of thousands of jobs due to the reorganization of the mining sector in the last years of the 20th century, continues to offer job opportunities in mining and agriculture. The distribution of the population is very uneven: the most densely populated areas are those of the western plateau, as well as the valleys of the Orange and its tributaries. Most of the residents live in rural areas. The only important center is the capital, Maseru.