Since Mongolia’s transition to market economy in the early 1990s, social disparities have increased significantly, especially between cities and rural areas. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of MNG and acronym for Mongolia. It has been strengthened over the years with disastrous winters when an average of 1/3 of the grazing animals have died, which has affected shepherd families in different parts of the country. During difficult years, many tent dwellers seek out families in the outer areas of the cities, and then usually return to the countryside. It has been estimated that 2/5 of the shepherd families have been worse off after the winter of 2010. Conversely, the number of livestock keepers in the country is increasing during periods when factories are closed down in the cities, as during the crisis in the textile industry 2004-05. In 2004, 36 percent of Mongolia residents lived below the poverty line; the proportion can thus vary widely from year to year. Similarly, it is impossible to state the level of unemployment in the country. Temporary work in an informal sector can cope with family survival during crisis years, but in many families you cannot pay insurance premiums and costs in connection with health care and schooling. International analysts therefore believe that the situation is worsening in the long term.
Social insurance is based on employment and is voluntary for self-employed and shepherds. The retirement age is 60 years for months and 55 years for women, but an increase is being discussed, as the proportion of older people is increasing and their health has improved. In 2008, there were close to 28 doctors and 76 beds per 10,000 residents. This is insignificant more than ten years earlier, but the quality of healthcare has improved significantly. Welfare calculations (HDI) placed Mongolia in 2015 at 92 among 188 countries in the world.