Mozambique is one of the world’s poorest countries; more than half of the country’s population lives in extreme poverty. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of NAK and acronym for Mozambique. In the past decade, however, the proportion of poor people has decreased significantly. In 2008, only 47 per cent of the population had access to clean water and in the countryside the corresponding figure was 29 percent.
At independence in 1975, the majority of European medical staff left the country. Access to healthcare is still poor; there are eight hospital beds (2007) and fewer than one doctor (2006) per 10,000 residents. Qualified personnel are present at just over half of the births. Like most other countries in southern Africa, Mozambique is severely affected by HIV/AIDS. In 2009, 12 percent of the population aged 15-49 were estimated to be infected. Of the country’s public expenditure, 11 percent is spent on health care (2009).
With Italy as a broker, Chissano and Afonso Dhlakama of RENAMO signed a peace treaty on October 4, 92, ending a 16-year war that had cost 1 million killed and driven 5 million on the run. The main point of the agreement was the gathering of RENAMO and government forces in specific areas and the transfer of arms of the two parties to a UN peacekeeping force. The UN should thus guarantee the disarmament of the two parties within a 6 month period. At the same time, troops from Zimbabwe were to be withdrawn. They had guaranteed the lines of connection between this country and the ports of Mozambique. The agreement also envisaged the formation of a new army of forces from both parties.
Disagreements between the two parties in December 92 led to the UN Security Council intervening and adopting a peace plan that included the deployment of civilian observers and a peace force of 7,500 soldiers. The first contingent led by a Brazilian general arrived in Maputo in February 93. The remaining 4,700 soldiers from Bangladesh, Italy, Uruguay, Argentina, India, Japan and Portugal arrived in May.
In February-March 93, FRELIMO participated in joint military maneuvers with the United States. It was seen as an approach to the West, to which Mozambique was becoming more dependent after the collapse of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.
The United Nations decided to postpone the October 94 elections in the hope of resolving the problems of the peace process. After several changes in attitude, RENAMO ultimately decided to take part in the election, in which Chissano was re-elected with 53% of the vote. FRELIMO got 44.3% of the vote against RENAMO’s 37.7%.
In March 95, the Paris Club (collection of European banks) decided to grant the country $ 780 million for reconstruction. The situation in the country was terrible with agricultural production being laid in ruins and large lands dotted with mines.
Through 96, the government endeavored to rebuild former trade with South Africa. Investments were the focal point of getting the economy started again. Chissano signed an agreement with South Africa’s Nelson Mandela on the settlement of thousands of South African farmers of European descent in an area of 200,000 hectares in the northern part of the country. An agreement that was criticized by the opposition.
Intense rains in 97 drove thousands of people to flight, most of whom sought refuge in Malawi. Nevertheless, the water helped to secure the production of cereals – one of the basic foods and export goods. Meanwhile, the government continued its privatization program. By the middle of the year, 900 out of 1200 state-owned enterprises had been privatized. Inflation reached 5.8%. The lowest since the World Bank and the IMF began their surveillance of the country’s economy.