Nicaragua is one of the continent’s poorest countries, reflected among other things in low housing standards and widespread nutritional deficiencies. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of NIC and acronym for Nicaragua. In the 1980s, public care was expanded, but in the 1990s, the social sector was also affected by the country’s transformation towards an economy built on private initiatives. By vaccination campaigns, polion was eradicated. Reform work was mainly slowed down by the civil war, and the gap between poor and rich increased again during the 1990s.
Theoretically there is a health insurance system and old-age pension, but in practice, very few get the benefit from the health care benefits and the amounts are modest. The woman’s position was strengthened during the 1980s; among other things, she got as much right as the man to acquire land, to become an independent member of cooperatives and to receive equal pay for equal work.
1933-79 Somoza dictatorship
The United States’ new occupation of the country was heroically fought by General Augusto C. Sandino, who, at the head of a peasant army of 3,000 soldiers, opposed the 12,000 North American Navy infantrymen supported by the Air Force and the local oligarchy. In 1933, Sandino fulfilled his promise: to lay down the weapons when the last navy left the country. But the betrayal was already prepared. The North Americans had replaced the country’s military with a National Guard, and its commander, Anastasio Somoza García, utilized a reconciliation meeting between Sandino and President Sacasa to assassinate the guerrilla leader and subsequently take office. A post he retained until he was executed in 1956 by Patriots Rigoberto López Pérez.
López Pérez murdered the tyrant, but not the tyrant. During his two decades in power, Anastasio Somoza has managed to submit to almost the entire country’s economy. The country’s ruler thus controlled both economic, political and military power. Anastasio Somoza García was succeeded in the presidential post by his son, engineer Luis Somoza Debayle, who handed over the government to his son, Anastasio, who was educated at the North American Military Academy West Point.
Anastasio carried out a violent repression, banned the unions, shattered the peasant organizations and banned the political parties of the opposition. However, popular resistance was never completely crushed. In the early 1960’s, student leader Carlos Fonseca Amador formed the guerrilla movement Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN), which for 17 years built and developed the fight against the Somoza dictatorship. In January 1978, Somoza ordered opposition leader Pedro Joaquín Chamorro – director of the daily “La Prensa” – executed. This murder triggered extensive protest demonstrations and a general strike.