After independence in 1991, Tajikistan suffered a fatal civil war (1992-93) which radically deteriorated social conditions. In particular, Gorno-Badachshan, which was in principle isolated, was affected, and only occasional relief services with supplies were reached. Nearly 50,000 people were killed in the war and at least 700,000, one-third of the population, were forced into exile to the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan and Afghanistan, among others. In June 1997, a peace agreement was concluded, but only in the early 2000s could talk of normalization, even if political violence still exists. Many refugees have returned. Most of those who left the country were most educated.
|Gross domestic product (GDP)||$ 28,430,000,000|
|GDP growth rate||7.10%|
|GDP per capita||$ 3,200|
|GDP by sector|
|Proportion of the population below the national poverty line||35.6%|
|Distribution of household income|
|Industrial production growth rate||0.80%|
|Investment volume||5% of GDP|
|National debt||50.40% of GDP|
|Foreign exchange reserves||$ 642,400,000|
|Number of visitors||213,000|
Tajikistan is the least developed country in Central Asia. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of TJK and acronym for Tajikistan. The country is in deep poverty: about 25 percent of the population is estimated to live in poverty (below US $ 2 / day), and unemployment is just over 11 percent (2012). Health care has been depleted, and growing drug trafficking has contributed to further social problems. The country receives assistance from a number of foreign donors including the United States.
As inspiration for Denmark, in January 2016, the authorities conducted an «anti-radicalization campaign». Police in the Khatlon region shaved the beard of approx. 13,000 men and closed 160 stores selling hijabs. Beard and hijab were declared “incompatible with Tajikistan’s secular culture”.
At least 170 people were tried in 2016 and sentenced to prison for their alleged participation in armed clashes between government forces and armed groups in Dushanbe in September 2015. Clashes made by the authorities as a coup attempt led by former Defense Minister Abdukhalim Nazarzoda.
A referendum in May 2016, with 96.6% of the vote, passed a series of far-reaching amendments to the constitution. The changes removed the restrictions on how many times a president could be elected to office. President Rahmon could therefore stand for a new term in 2020. At the same time, parties based on faith (ie Islam) or nationality were banned. The ban on Tajikistan’s Islamic Renaissance Party 9 months earlier thus also had a legal basis to stand on.
In November, it was made criminal to “offend the leader of the nation”.
The EU and the US continued their practice of not criticizing the situation in the country.