Macedonia Society

Macedonia is located in Southeast Europe, bordered by Kosovo to the northwest, Serbia to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, and Albania to the west. Its geographic coordinates range from approximately 40°N to 42°N latitude and 20°E to 23°E longitude.



Macedonia has a diverse climate influenced by its varied topography. In general, the country experiences hot summers and cold winters, with Mediterranean and continental climates prevailing in different regions. The lowlands and valleys have milder temperatures, while the mountainous areas experience colder conditions and heavy snowfall during the winter months.


Macedonia’s diverse landscapes support a variety of wildlife, including brown bears, wolves, lynx, deer, and various bird species. The country’s national parks and protected areas provide habitats for these animals, contributing to biodiversity conservation efforts.

Longest Rivers

The two longest rivers in Macedonia are:

  1. Vardar River: The Vardar River is the longest river entirely within Macedonia, flowing from its source near Gostivar in the northwest to its confluence with the Axios River in Greece. The Vardar River is an essential waterway for transportation and irrigation in the region.
  2. Struma River: The Struma River forms part of Macedonia’s western border with Bulgaria before flowing southward into Greece. It serves as a natural boundary and contributes to the region’s hydrology and ecology.

Highest Mountains

Macedonia’s terrain is characterized by rugged mountains, plateaus, and valleys. The highest mountains in Macedonia include:

  1. Mount Korab: Mount Korab is the highest peak in Macedonia, reaching an elevation of 2,764 meters (9,068 feet). It is located on the border with Albania and is part of the Šar Mountains range.
  2. Mount Golem Korab: Mount Golem Korab is the second-highest peak in Macedonia, with an elevation of 2,751 meters (9,026 feet). It is also part of the Šar Mountains range and offers scenic hiking opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts.



The territory of present-day Macedonia has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with evidence of human presence dating back to the Paleolithic era. Archaeological sites such as the Neolithic settlement of Ohrid and the Bronze Age settlement of Trebeništa provide insights into early human settlements in the region.

Ancient Macedonia

The ancient kingdom of Macedonia, located in the northern part of Greece, emerged in the 7th century BCE. Under the leadership of King Philip II and his son Alexander the Great, Macedonia rose to prominence and established one of the largest empires in history, stretching from Greece to Egypt and India. Alexander’s conquests spread Greek culture and language across the known world, shaping the course of history.

Roman and Byzantine Periods

Following the decline of the Macedonian Empire, the region came under Roman rule in the 2nd century BCE and later became part of the Byzantine Empire. During this period, Christianity spread throughout the region, leaving a lasting legacy in the form of Byzantine churches, monasteries, and religious artifacts.

Ottoman Rule

In the 14th century, Macedonia fell under Ottoman rule, remaining part of the Ottoman Empire for over 500 years. During this time, the region experienced significant cultural and demographic changes, with the introduction of Islam and the coexistence of various ethnic and religious communities.

Balkan Wars and Yugoslav Era

The early 20th century brought upheaval to Macedonia with the Balkan Wars and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. Following World War I, Macedonia became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and later the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia under Josip Broz Tito.

Independence and Modern Era

In 1991, Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia, becoming the Republic of Macedonia. The newly formed country faced challenges in establishing its identity and sovereignty, including disputes over its name with Greece. In 2019, Macedonia officially changed its name to the Republic of North Macedonia, resolving the longstanding issue and paving the way for closer ties with the international community.



North Macedonia has a population of approximately 2.1 million people, with a diverse ethnic makeup. The largest ethnic group is Macedonians, who make up the majority of the population, followed by Albanians, Turks, Roma, and other minority groups.

Ethnicity and Language

The ethnic composition of North Macedonia is diverse, reflecting its complex history and cultural heritage. The official language is Macedonian, which is spoken by the majority of the population. Albanian is also recognized as a co-official language in areas where Albanians are concentrated.


North Macedonia is a multi-religious society, with the majority of the population adhering to Eastern Orthodox Christianity. There are also significant Muslim and Catholic communities, as well as smaller Protestant and other religious groups.

Education and Literacy

Education is highly valued in North Macedonia, with a well-established system of primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Schooling is compulsory for children aged 6 to 15, and the government provides free education up to the secondary level. North Macedonia is home to several universities and higher education institutions, including the University of Skopje and the University of Tetovo.

Administrative Divisions

North Macedonia is divided into eight statistical regions, each comprising several municipalities. Here is a list of the administrative divisions along with their respective populations:

  1. Skopje Region – Population: 650,000
  2. Eastern Region – Population: 460,000
  3. Northeastern Region – Population: 530,000
  4. Southeastern Region – Population: 380,000
  5. Pelagonia Region – Population: 350,000
  6. Southwestern Region – Population: 470,000
  7. Vardar Region – Population: 600,000
  8. Northwestern Region – Population: 400,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

The largest cities in North Macedonia by population include:

  1. Skopje – Population: 550,000
  2. Bitola – Population: 100,000
  3. Kumanovo – Population: 70,000
  4. Prilep – Population: 66,000
  5. Tetovo – Population: 52,000
  6. Veles – Population: 45,000
  7. Ohrid – Population: 42,000
  8. Gostivar – Population: 40,000
  9. Stip – Population: 38,000
  10. Strumica – Population: 35,000

Education Systems

Education in North Macedonia is overseen by the Ministry of Education and Science and is based on a comprehensive and inclusive approach. Primary and secondary education are compulsory and free for all children, while higher education is provided by universities and colleges across the country. North Macedonia has made significant progress in expanding access to education and improving literacy rates.



North Macedonia has two international airports:

  1. Skopje International Airport (SKP) – Located near the capital city, Skopje, it is the largest and busiest airport in the country.
  2. Ohrid St. Paul the Apostle Airport (OHD) – located near the city of Ohrid, it serves as a gateway for tourists visiting the Lake Ohrid region.


North Macedonia has a railway network operated by Macedonian Railways (MZ), connecting major cities and towns across the country. The total length of the railway network is approximately 925 kilometers.


North Macedonia has a well-developed road network, with modern highways and expressways linking major cities and border crossings. The total length of paved roads in the country is approximately 5,200 kilometers.


North Macedonia is a landlocked country and does not have any major seaports. However, it has access to international trade routes through neighboring countries such as Greece and Bulgaria.

Country Facts

  • Population: 2.1 million
  • Capital: Skopje
  • Official Language: Macedonian
  • Religion: Eastern Orthodox Christianity
  • Ethnicity: Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish, Roma, others
  • Currency: Macedonian denar (MKD)
  • ISO Country Code: MK
  • International Calling Code: +389
  • Top-Level Domain: .mk