Eritrea’s economy has been ravaged after decades of war in the country. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of ERI and acronym for Eritrea. A large part of the population is dependent on food aid, while the government limits the flow of aid. In 2006, 14 percent of children were underweight at birth, compared with 44 percent in the early 1990s. Infant mortality has dropped from 88 percent in 1990 to 46 per cent in 2017 and maternal mortality from 1,400 to 450 per 100,000 births. The government uses just over 3.7 percent of GDP for health care (2005). In 2004, there were approximately 4.5 doctors per 100,000 residents. In 2006, 60 percent of the population had access to clean water and 5 percent to satisfactory wastewater.
A major problem after the war against Ethiopia in 1998–2000 has been the demobilization of the approximately 250,000 soldiers. In 2005, there were still 200,000 soldiers in the army. The war devastated large parts of agriculture and industry, causing many to lose their livelihoods. Unemployment is high, while there is a shortage of trained staff. The activities of the unions are very limited. Military, police and government officials are not allowed to organize. The only national organization, the National Confederation of Eritrean Workers (NCEW), is closely linked to the state-carrying party PFDJ.