South America – language
In most South American countries mentioned by AbbreviationFinder.org, the national language is Spanish; however, Brazil, Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname respectively. Portuguese, English, French and Dutch as a national language. In a number of countries, some of the Native American languages are also national languages, such as Guaraní in Paraguay and Quechua in Peru. In addition, there are hundreds of thousands who speak Romani across the country.
German immigrants have retained their language in several countries, including in Paraguay, where minorities speak German and Plautdietsch ‘Platonic’, and in Venezuela alemán coloneiro ‘colonial’, which differs greatly from standard German. In Argentina, Italian is spoken by approx. 3% of the population.
Creole languages, although unofficial and, for example, not used in educational settings, are the most important languages in the northeastern countries of Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. In Guyana, the English-based creolese is spoken by ca. 85% of the population, in Suriname, the English-based sranan of approx. 80% of the population, and in French Guiana the French-based patwa of approx. one third of the population of the capital Cayenne and of the greater part of the rural population.
There are about 430-480 South American languages, distributed with 5-40 Native American languages in most countries, in Colombia and Peru over 50 and in Brazil alone almost 200. The proportion of people who have Native American languages as a mother tongue, in Paraguay is approx. 95%, in Bolivia approx. 60%, in Peru approx. 35%, in Ecuador approx. 20% and in the other South American countries below 5%.
|Country||Proportion of women in Parliament (percent)||Public Expenditure on Health Care Per Person (US Dollar)|
|Argentina||39 (2018)||955 (2016)|
|Bolivia||53 (2018)||213 (2016)|
|Brazil||11 (2018)||1,016 (2016)|
|Chile||23 (2018)||1 191 (2016)|
|Colombia||18 (2018)||340 (2016)|
|Ecuador||38 (2018)||505 (2016)|
|Guyana||32 (2018)||192 (2016)|
|Paraguay||15 (2018)||327 (2016)|
|Peru||28 (2018)||316 (2016)|
|Suriname||26 (2018)||356 (2016)|
|Uruguay||20 (2018)||1 379 (2016)|
|Venezuela||22 (2018)||1,578 (2015)|
South America – Health Conditions
The disease pattern is characterized by the different climatic conditions. In the tropical countries, a large number of tropical diseases continue to exist. malaria and Chagas’ disease, affecting the rural population hard. Also, diarrheal diseases caused by especially poor water supply affect the rural population, leading to a high mortality rate in children up to the age of five. Malnutrition and malnutrition are also widespread in many countries among the most disadvantaged groups. Civilization diseases such as atherosclerosis and diabetes have been increasing in frequency and are also showing that cardiovascular diseases have become a frequent cause of death. In many countries, the spread of HIV is HIV large with the resulting increasing incidence of AIDS. Accidents are a common cause of death in most countries, and other types of violent death are common in some countries. Overall, there has been a significant increase in life expectancy and a decline in infant mortality since 1970. However, there are large differences between countries, and in most countries the differences between the best and the poorest regions do not appear to have diminished.
In the majority of countries, there is no public health service that covers the entire population. Some countries have programs regarding pregnancy, childbirth and the first years of life incl. vaccinations. The vast majority of healthcare is private in most countries, and there is generally a very uneven distribution of hospitals and health professionals between the regions and between country and city. In several countries, health insurance systems have been introduced, which are, however, most often contingent on an employment relationship.
According to Countryaah, Brazil is the most populous country in South America with approximately 210 million residents. South America has a rich cultural variety, often with cultures that cross country borders. A good example is the gaucho culture, which ranges from southern Brazil, through Argentina and Uruguay. It is possible to see traces of this culture in eating habits (such as chimarrão and barbecues), in fashion and in several other aspects that are part of the way of being and the culture of individuals who are born in this region.
The Tango Argentina, samba, forró and frevo and bossa nova from Brazil, are examples of musical styles (and dance) that won the world and have become cultural influences in various countries across the globe, but had origin in South America.
The two main colonizers were Portuguese (Brazil and for a time in Uruguay) and Spanish (most of the South American countries), even though they were not the only ones, so they left marked traces in the culture of this subcontinent, not only in the language, but also in architecture, arts, habits, religion, music, etc.
In addition to European settlers, South America has a strong indigenous influence, including in the language, with some countries still speaking Guarani and Brazil in the colonial period having the general language (Tupi Moderno) as their main language. This subcontinent has an innumerable number of indigenous nations, not to mention the famous Inca Empire that had a civilization quite advanced for its time, especially in the Amerindian context. Some parts of South America had great immigration of black Africans, who were kidnapped to work as slaves in the new world, especially in the State of Bahia and in the southeast of Brazil, they also left their marks on the culture of these peoples.
The predominant religion in this sub-continent is Roman Catholicism, Brazil being the largest Catholic country in the world, however there is a growing evangelical/ Protestant flow in South America, as well as local syncretic religions (such as Umbanda, Jurema and Catimbó that mix Catholic, Spiritist, Indigenous and African elements), some even making use of entheogenic substances in their services, such as the controversial Santo-Daime (Ayahuasca).