A majority of the population are Palestinian refugees or children. A few hundred thousand still live in refugee camps, established in 1948 and 1967.
Health care, which has been greatly expanded, is run partly by the state and partly by the private sector. In 1994, there were just over 6,000 doctors, over 2,500 dentists and close to 7,000 care sites, of which about 60 percent belonged to the public health service. The medical density has improved from one per 2,476 residents (1970) to one per 699 residents (1991). Most doctors are active in Amman. Despite successful vaccination campaigns, infant mortality is high, especially in rural areas. Diseases such as tuberculosis, hepatitis and dysentery cause major problems. About 4 percent of government spending is allocated to health care.
Unemployment is extensive; officially admitted 18 percent (1994), but in reality it is much higher, about 30 percent. It is especially high among women. In total, only 15 per cent of the population is counted on the labor force. Unemployment worsened after the Kuwaiti war of 1990-91, when Jordan stood on Iraq’s side. Before the war, about 40 percent of the Jordanian labor force was active in the states of the Persian Gulf, especially in Kuwait, where between 200,000 and 300,000 Jordanians were expelled in 1991. Because of the population structure, the labor market pressure is expected to increase further when all young people will compete about jobs. Visit AbbreviationFinder to see the definitions of JOR and acronym for Jordan.
Amman, capital of Jordan; 4.14 million (2005). More than 5 million live in the metropolitan area. people, approximately 2/3 of its population. Amman is located 40 km east of the Jordan River in a heavily hilly terrain approximately 1000 meters above sea level It is Jordan’s only major city with a modern infrastructure, the country’s political, economic and cultural center, and it accommodates half the population. The majority are Palestinians, displaced after the Arab-Israeli wars; they reside in refugee camps or are integrated into the city. The 1970 Jordanian civil war between Palestinian guerrilla groups and the Jordanian military added great damage to the city.
To the north and south of the city are some of the country’s important phosphate beds, and it houses some cement and other industries. Amman, in particular, is a commercial city with an international airport and a network of highways, and is home to several international organizations’ representation in the Middle East. The city has several archaeological sites, but modern Amman does not seem to be a major tourist destination.
The oldest name of the town is Rabba in Ammon (2 Sam. 11,1), but as a city it dates back to 3000 AD. with finds from the Stone Age at the city source. From the Middle Bronze Age, Amman is fortified with a wall.
Amman was the capital of the kingdom of Ammon and was conquered by King David, later of Assyria in 733 BC During Ptolemy II, the city was named Philadelfos. In Roman times, Amman, which was by a trade road, was a rich city and later became the seat of the bishop. From Roman times, the remains of a Herculean temple, theater, odeion and nymphum have been preserved.
In 635 the city was conquered by the Arabs and approximately 1300 almost completely destroyed. In the early 1900’s. Amman was a stagnant city with no political and economic significance, but with the formation of the Transjordanian emirate – from 1950 the Kingdom of Jordan – it underwent a rapid development into a modern metropolis.