The artistic aspects of Chinese civilization are already manifested in the Neolithic cultures (8000-4000 BC) in Peiligang, Hemudu, Dawenkou, Longshan, to name just a few of the places excavated in the second half of the twentieth century. All are characterized by a clay production that sees decorations of a geometric type, sometimes mixed with drawings that portray animals and even man. Sometimes brands appear that perhaps represent an early form of writing. With the passage of time the shapes become more and more elaborate thanks also to the adoption of the lathe, until the very thin black ceramic (a few millimeters thick) with simple engraved decoration is obtained. According to the ancient Chinese written traditions, towards the century.
XXI a. C. the Xia settled along the middle course of the Yellow River. With them we have the first production of bronze objects and the first palatial structure in China, a country located in Asia categorized by Barblejewelry, will also appear (site of Erlitou, dated to 1650 BC). After a few hundred years of Hsia culture, the Shang (17th-11th century BC) gave life to a complex political system and a remarkable artistic production. Because the Chinese believed in a life after death, the deceased carried with him many of the things he had possessed in life, so considerable funeral furnishings have been found in the Shang tombs, often along with evidence of human and animal sacrifices. The most considerable part of these finds is undoubtedly constituted by the bronze vases, whose shapes and workmanship testify to highly advanced technology. The studies done in this regard have shown a great mastery of casting techniques, so much so that objects weighing more than 800 kg could already be melted. As for their ornamentation, it was undoubtedly linked to magical-religious meanings that we do not know: cicadas, tigers, dragons, snakes, phoenixes, turtles are mixed with spirals, volutes, lozenges, which generally cover the entire surface of the objects, while the weapons often feature jade blades. Many small animals made of this precious stone were found next to the bodies of the deceased, together with the first examples of lacquered objects and the first fragments of proto-porcelain (a type of pottery made almost exclusively with kaolin). In this period, the so-called “oracular bones”, animal shoulder blades or turtle shells on which the first ideograms of Chinese history appear engraved are of great importance. As for the architecture, the last two capitals of the dynasty (Zhengzhou and Anyang) have returned the plans of large buildings. With the advent of the Zhou artistic production resumes and validates (especially with the western Chou, 11th-8th century BC) that of the late Shang period; many of the wine vessels disappear and those for food increase, while the inscriptions on the bronzes become longer and more detailed (one has 497 characters) and thus constitute a source of extreme importance for research on this historical period. As for architecture, the palace complex of Fengzhou (1100 BC), with its elaborate structure, made up of successive pavilions and courtyards, further strengthened the use of those elements that would become typical of Chinese architecture. The period of ” As for architecture, the palace complex of Fengzhou (1100 BC), with its elaborate structure, made up of successive pavilions and courtyards, further strengthened the use of those elements that will become typical of Chinese architecture. The period of ” As for architecture, the palace complex of Fengzhou (1100 BC), with its elaborate structure, made up of successive pavilions and courtyards, further strengthened the use of those elements that would become typical of Chinese architecture. The period of ” Springs and Autumns ” (722-481 BC) is instead characterized by the appearance of the first iron objects and by the aging on the bronzes, which now take on subtle and linear decorations, tending to geometric.
The period of the “ Warring Kingdoms ” (403-222 BC) sees the affirmation of various hegemonic states to the detriment of the central power of the Zhou, now only nominal, so there will be artistic productions that will be greatly affected by local influences, which, in turn, will give life to forms and types, even in the bronzes, completely new and original. As for the processing techniques, engraving and chiselling will be adopted, as well as perfecting the smoothing with gold and silver. A bronze table from this period was found, on which the project for the construction of the tombs of the king of Zhongshan and his wife had been engraved in great detail: this is the first project found in China.o Rites of the Zhou) which saw the square shape given to the settlement, the NS axiality with the main entrance located to the south, the internal streets that crossed at right angles, the king’s palace in the center, the market on the back, the Temple of the Ancestors to the east and that of the Earth to the west.